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Jaundice
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
   

Jaundice
Other name: Icterus

Jaundice refers to the yellow skin tone associated with liver and blood disorders. It is common among newborns, but may also occur in adults.

Jaundice in newborns is often caused by bilirubin, which is a substance normally produced by the body and removed by the liver. Some newborns’ livers may not be able to remove the bilirubin. The body may be producing more than the liver can handle, or too much may be being reabsorbed from the intestines. Usually jaundice developing shortly after birth disappears in a few weeks, but a physician should be consulted to rule out other possible causes.

Jaundice among adults is caused by liver and gallbladder disorders, as well as disorders that destroy red blood cells. Symptoms include:

  • Yellow skin tone
  • Yellow in the normally white portion of the eye
  • Dark-colored urine and light-colored stool

Jaundice is diagnosed by a physical exam, review of symptoms and tests to evaluate liver function. Treatment is based on the cause of the condition and is aimed at correcting the underlying cause of jaundice.

Please note that this material is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice or instruction. Consult your healthcare professional for advice relating to a medical problem or condition. (return to top)

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Other name: Juvenile arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is a group of diseases that involves pain and physical limitations related to chronic joint inflammation for someone 16 years old or younger. The cause is unknown, but three types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis have been identified and are defined by the number of joints involved.

Patients with pauciarticular JRA have one to four joints affected during the first six months; those with polyarticular JRA have five or more joints affected; and patients with systemic JRA have whole body symptoms, but joint pain and swelling may not be present initially. Pauciarticular JRA is the most common type. Typically, larger weight-bearing joints, knees and ankles are affected. Symptoms common to all three forms of JRA include:

  • Joint pain and swelling
  • Joint stiffness that lasts more than an hour in the morning
  • Irritability

Diagnosis of JRA requires the identification of arthritis in at least one joint that persists for six weeks or longer without other contributing factors. Generally, patients with JRA are encouraged to be as active as possible and need close medical followup.

Medical advancements in treatment during the last 30 years have improved the prognosis for the more severe forms of the disease.

Please note that this material is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice or instruction. Consult your healthcare professional for advice relating to a medical problem or condition. (return to top)