Reproductive Technologies (ART) are procedures in which the woman’s
eggs are removed from the ovaries, or donor eggs are used, and they
are fertilized with sperm in a laboratory. The fertilized embryo
is transferred into the woman’s uterus. Many couples move on
to ART after three to six unsuccessful cycles of artificial insemination.
Donor eggs are recommended for women who have ovarian failure, diminished
egg production or genetically transmittable diseases. Ninety-eight
percent of ART procedures are in vitro fertilization (IVF), which
use the mother’s own eggs.
This procedure is considered minor
surgery. Mild painkillers may be prescribed for use during the
procedure and with post-procedure
discomfort. Other options include abdominal ultrasound guidance,
where a hollow needle with ultrasound guidance is inserted through
the abdomen or laparoscopy. If a donor egg is used, this step
is skipped. When a donor egg is used, many of the same issues of
donors need to be considered. Risks associated with IVF include
multiple births, problems associated with egg collection, ectopic
and the failure of the treatment.
Surgery is another option for
ART that can be useful in overcoming some causes for infertility.
Obviously, surgery is used to reverse
ligation or vasectomy in both men and women. In men,
surgery is used to correct blockage of the reproductive tract or
sperm-blocking varicolceles (dilated veins in the scrotum).
In women, surgery is intended to correct blockage of fallopian
remove growths from the reproductive tract.
Invasive procedures such as zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) and gamete intrafallopian
transfer (GIFT) are rarely
today. Before in vitro fertilization (IVF) became highly
more invasive procedures were used. Now, IVF is so effective
and has such low risk that it is the most common and recommended
Click below to read about related topics.
Assisted Reproductive Technology